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The Codrington collection, 1704-1898


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The Codrington collection, 1704-1898

C/WI/COD. Codrington College has a history distinct from the work of the SPG proper, before and after diocesan control, and distinct too from the management of the Codrington estates. Christopher Codrington, who died in 1710, bequeathed to the SPG two plantations in Barbados 'to maintain a convenient number of professors and scholars'. Bishop William Fleetwood in London viewed the gift as a foundation for negro education and Christianisation in a remarkable sermon on racial equality later called 'the Charter of liberties for negro rule'. In Britain there were plans drawn up for the proposed college and the first stone was laid in Barbados in 1717. Funds were to come from the two plantations and building began in 1721. It was not until 1745, however, that the College opened under Thomas Rotheram and clearly established itself as a grammar school for white boys only. This was far from the intention of the original bequest and it is significant that there was some stress on the appointment of a catechist to teach the slaves. But the distinction was invidious and it was not until the beginning of the 19th century when John Hothersal Pinder was appointed catechist for the slaves and a separate chapel for slaves was built in 1819 that the religious instruction of negroes was given serious weight.

In the meantime the grammar schools did not prosper. It is clear that Barbadian planters and former students prized it highly but funds from the two estates were not sufficient and the school failed by 1775. When it reopened in 1797 under Mark Nicholson, the President for the next 24 years, the SPG had united local pressure to reopen a boys' school with renewed pressure from Britain to take a more active part in the Christianising of the slaves. After 1813 the school was under the control of the Governor of Barbados but the struggle of the SPG to control both the estates and educational policies slowly gained ground and were crowned with success in 1824 with the appointment of the first Bishop of Barbados, William Hart Coleridge. Coleridge was anxious to improve education and, under his guidance, educational policies widened extensively. Thus, in 1830 he opened a new Codrington College - at last to train candidates for the ministry. The old grammar school was continued, as the Lodge School, but with the coming of emancipation, rather more efforts were turned to negro education and the building of schools for the newly emancipated, a Negro Education Grant providing for this until 1845. Although far from the intention of the original bequest, the founding of a grammar school served as best to help establish an indigenous 'gentry' in Barbados by seeing that the planters were a little less inclined to become absentee. On the other hand, the problem of gaining recruits for the theological college was to prove grave. As in Jamaica, white West Indians were considered to be unsuitable candidates, there was prejudice against negro or coloured men and Englishmen (though not necessarily college-educated ones) were held to be the most adaptable to changing times. Thus whilst the schools in Barbados flourished, Codrington College fell on hard times after 1887 and only the celebration of the SPG bicentenary in 1901 revived it. Arthur Henry Anstey was appointed principal and proved a great success; after 1955 the Community of the Resurrection took over the running of the College.

It is difficult to see that the 18th century Codrington College - or even the 19th century theological foundation - contributed much to the abolition of slavery and later to the successful integration of society. But the foundations for education were laid in Barbados and more than just token insistence placed on the importance of the need for religious instruction. Ultimately, if not for some while, the insistence that the task of the SPG was to preach and to teach made headway and, if initially too privileged in Barbados, by the 20th century the SPG and their Codrington bequest became a meaningful factor in the life of the island and of its religious foundation.





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Settling the estate, 1704-1726

Contents: C/WI/COD/1: Papers about General Codrington's will and the Society, 1712, including will of Codrington senior, 1695, with correspondence and legal papers. | C/WI/COD/2: Inventory of Rendevous plantation, 17 February 1704/5. | C/WI/COD/3: Inventory of Staplegrove plantation, 17 October 1705. | C/WI/COD/4: Inventory of Rendevous plantation and Garden Tenement, 17 October 1703. | C/WI/COD/5: Extract from Codrington's will relating to the SPG, [n.d.]. | C/WI/COD/6: Address by the SPG to Queen Anne asking for assistance to gain possession of the estates, c.1710-1711. | C/WI/COD/7: Letters of Chamberlayne, Secretary of the SPG, to Barbados, 1711. | C/WI/COD/8: Draft power of attorney by SPG to Woodbridge and Ramsay, 1710-1711. | C/WI/COD/9: Miscellaneous papers re legal position, 1711. | C/WI/COD/10: Correspondence from Dudley Woodbridge and Gilbert Ramsay, Barbados, 1711-1716. | C/WI/COD/11: 'Mr Downe's case and relative papers', 1726, including copy documents from 1678. | C/WI/COD/12: Papers re Cunningham annuity, 1712-1727. | C/WI/COD/13: Correspondence and papers re Colonel William Codrington, 1711-1712. | C/WI/COD/14: Correspondence with Governor Robert Lowther of Barbados, 1711-1712. | C/WI/COD/15: Draft letter from SPG to William Popple, Secretary of the Board of Trade, 1721. | C/WI/COD/16: Papers re Barbuda, 1711-1716.

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Catechists and chaplains, 1714-1848

Contents: C/WI/COD/62: Testimonials to Rev. Joseph Holt, 1714-1715, signed by many inhabitants of Barbados. | C/WI/COD/63: Appointment of Charles Love as catechist, 1716. | C/WI/COD/64: Correspondence re Thomas Wilkie, catechist, 1731. | C/WI/COD/65: Letter from Michael Mashart, schoolmaster and catechist, 1771. | C/WI/COD/66: Appointment of Willian Terrot as catechist, 1797-1798. | C/WI/COD/67: Letters and reports of Rev. J.H. Pinder, chaplain, 1819-1826, including a stray letter of 1849. | C/WI/COD/68: Letters and reports of Rev. J. Packer, chaplain, 1827-1831. | C/WI/COD/69: Correspondence of the Bishop of London et al. re chaplain's house, 1822. | C/WI/COD/74: Letters and reports of Rev. Thomas Watts, chaplain and master of the Foundation School, 1831-1840. | C/WI/COD/75: Reports of Rev. E.H. Parry, chaplain, 1843-1848. | C/WI/COD/147: Principal's statement of the expenses of the estate chaplaincy, 1848.

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The school, 1745-1842

Contents: C/WI/COD/78: Letters from Rev. Thomas Rotherham, 1745-1751. | C/WI/COD/79: Letters from Joseph Bewsher, 1741-1749, including a printed advertisement, 1748. | C/WI/COD/80: Letters from William Bryant, 1746-1749, including: correspondence re passage 1746; bill for Nathan Treadway - Christ's Hospital boy sent to Barbados with W.B.; bills for books and scientific instruments, 1746; letter re prospect of a Bishop for Barbados, 1749. | C/WI/COD/81: Invoice of charges for two blue-coat boys sent on board the 'Speedwell' to Barbados, 1749. | C/WI/COD/82: Letters from William Cattell, including invoices of drugs and medicines needed, 1746-1753. | C/WI/COD/83: Draft letters of SPG to the school staff, 1748-1749. | C/WI/COD/84: Correspondence of Rev. John Rotherham, 1750-1757, including draft letter from SPG, 1757. | C/WI/COD/85: Appointment and correspondence of Thomas Falcon, usher, 1753. | C/WI/COD/86: Letters from Rev. David Davies, including a list of books bequeathed by Thomas Falcon, 1762-1766. | C/WI/COD/87: Appointment and correspondence of James Butcher, schoolmaster, 1763-1770. | C/WI/COD/88: William Thomas, catechist on the estate: correspondence re appointment as schoolmaster, 1792-1793. | C/WI/COD/89: Appointment as schoolmaster, and correspondence, of Mark Nicholson, 1797-1822. | C/WI/COD/90: Correspondence of Thomas Moody, usher, including some matters re estate and attorneys, and a plan of Mansion House, 1803-1805. | C/WI/COD/91: Further correspondence of Thomas Moody, now lieutenant in the Royal Engineers, mainly re London and Bristol agents, 1807-1842. | C/WI/COD/92: SPG instructions re management of the school under Nicholson, c.1798. | C/WI/COD/93: Rules to be observed by the matron or nurse, [n.d.]. | C/WI/COD/94: Weekly bill of fare for foundation scholars, [n.d.]. | C/WI/COD/95: List of books for the use of boys, [n.d.]. | C/WI/COD/96: Correspondence of John Henry Barrow re school, 1797. | C/WI/COD/97: William Bishop: inadequacy of provision for Mr Nicholson, 1797. | C/WI/COD/98: Correspondence of William M. Harte re resignation, 1805. | C/WI/COD/99: Lists of foundation scholars and exhibitioners, 1799, 1822-1828. | C/WI/COD/100: Correspondence re exhibitioners/foundation scholars: William Clarke, William Gill, Henry Bishp, Francis Bell Grant, Henry Wall, 1824-1828, including samples of pupils' work. | C/WI/COD/101: Correspondence from Lieutenant Governor, Sir Henry Warde, enclosing minutes of meetings of the governors of the College, 1821-1828. | C/WI/COD/102: Anonymous letter re the College, 1811. | C/WI/COD/103: Correspondence of Samuel Hinds, 1822-1828. | C/WI/COD/104: Correspondence of Rev. Henry Parkinson, 1824-1835. | C/WI/COD/105: Notes about the history (1710-1813) of the College, etc., c.1825. | C/WI/COD/135: A catalogue of the books left on the Society's plantation at the death of Mr Smalridge, c.1732, possibly Codrington's own books? | C/WI/COD/136: A catalogue of the library at Codrington College, 1745. | C/WI/COD/137: A list of books belonging to the library at Codrington College, 1779. | C/WI/COD/138: Catalogue of the library at Codrington College, 1798. | C/WI/COD/140: Library bookplate, [19th cent.].

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Estate management, 1711-1845

Contents: C/WI/COD/26: Papers re Rev. Alex Cunningham, 1717-1720. | C/WI/COD/27: Correspondence from John Smalridge, Attorney, 1722-1728. | C/WI/COD/28: Draft letters from SPG to Barbados, 1722-1724. | C/WI/COD/29: Copy papers of Attorney, 1723-1726. | C/WI/COD/30: Correspondence re appointment of new town agent, 1736-1738. | C/WI/COD/31: William Cleland's opinion re sugar crop, 1711. | C/WI/COD/32: Table showing estimates of produce, etc., 1712-1724. | C/WI/COD/33: Minutes of Barbados Attorney, 1724-1738. | C/WI/COD/34: Letters of John Vaughton, manager of the estate, 1738. | C/WI/COD/35: Correspondence from Attorneys, 1745-1749. | C/WI/COD/36: Correspondence with Henry Lascelles & David Maxwell, 1746. | C/WI/COD/37: Letters of John Payne, Manager of the Estates, 1746-1748. | C/WI/COD/38: Correspondence from Attorneys, 1750-1758. | C/WI/COD/39: Correspondence from Attorneys, 1760-1770. | C/WI/COD/40: Memo re Estate Management, 1780. | C/WI/COD/41: Correspondence with Attorneys, 1775-1778. | C/WI/COD/42: Letter from anonymous clergyman, [n.d.]. | C/WI/COD/43: Correspondence re Henley plantation (sold 1766), 1775-1789. | C/WI/COD/44: Inventory of plantations, 1783. | C/WI/COD/45: Miscellaneous correspondence of Attorneys, 1793-1803. | C/WI/COD/46: Correspondence of Edward Clarke, Estate Manager, 1795-1800. | C/WI/COD/47: Correspondence of John Braithwaite, 1797-1800. | C/WI/COD/48: Historical surveys of slave population of estate, 1710-1750 & 1773-1782. | C/WI/COD/49: Correspondence of Attorneys, 1803-1805. | C/WI/COD/50: Correspondence of Sir Philip Gibbes, [n.d.]. | C/WI/COD/51: Correspondence of Archbishop of York re Attorneys, [n.d.]. | C/WI/COD/52: Inventory of utensils on the plantation, [n.d.]. | C/WI/COD/53: Miscellaneous correspondence of Attorneys, [n.d.]. | C/WI/COD/54: Thomas Hollingsworth, Estate Manager, [n.d.]. | C/WI/COD/55: Forster Clarke, Estate Manager, 1805-1800. | C/WI/COD/56: C. Massiah declines to be Estate Manager, 1835. | C/WI/COD/57: Thomas King, Estate Manager, 1835-1845. | C/WI/COD/58: Table showing sugar production, 1826-1841. | C/WI/COD/59: Tables increase and decrease of negroes, 1807-1808. | C/WI/COD/60: Quarterly returns of the Estates, 1807-1808. | C/WI/COD/61: Various statistics re Estates, 1730-1781. | C/WI/COD/70: Correspondence re slaves and emancipation, 1824-1837. | C/WI/COD/71: List of married couples (slaves), 1832. | C/WI/COD/72: Enfranchisement, 1838. | C/WI/COD/73: Account cash paid to labourers, 1838. | C/WI/COD/76: Memo concerning instruction of negroes. | C/WI/COD/126: List of negroes, cattle, horses and asses on the estate, 1745.

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College : new status, 1824-1898

Contents: C/WI/COD/106: General correspondence re new status, 1828-1829. | C/WI/COD/107: Codrington College Council minutes, 1829. | C/WI/COD/108: Correspondence & reports of Rev. J.B. Pinder, Principal, 1829-1835. | C/WI/COD/109: Application, correspondence & reports of Rev. E.P. Smith, tutor, 1824-1849. | C/WI/COD/110: Correspondence & reports of Dr. Maycock, Medical Professor, c.1830-1834. | C/WI/COD/111: Correspondence & reports of Rev. Henry Jones, Principal, 1838-1848. | C/WI/COD/112: Correspondence & reports of Rev. Thomas Gill, reader in mathematics & natural philosophy, 1838-1841. | C/WI/COD/113: Correspondence & reports of Dr. G.E. Thomas, medical professor, 1841-1845. | C/WI/COD/114: Correspondence & reports of Ven. Charles Lawson, reader in mathematics, including as Archdeacon of Barbados, 1844-1847. | C/WI/COD/115: Correspondence & reports of Rev. Richard Rawle, Principal, and Nicholas Pocock, Acting Principal, 1847-1858. | C/WI/COD/116: Correspondence & reports of Rev. John Bradshaw, chaplain & medical lecturer, 1854-1858. | C/WI/COD/117: Correspondence of J.W. Haddock, SPG exhibitioner at Codrington, 1844-l846. | C/WI/COD/118: Rev. F.C. Massingbird, Ormsby Parsonage, Lincolnshire, to SPG requesting information re extent of damage to the College in the recent hurricane, 1831. | C/WI/COD/119: Resolutions of SPG Standing Committee re College, [post-1831]. | C/WI/COD/120: Resolution of York Diocesan Committee (SPG) re admitting coloured students to Codrington College, 1838. | C/WI/COD/121: Robert Addams, Kensington, supplying "philosophical instruments" for the College; consignment of a box of books, 1838. | C/WI/COD/122: Expenses for furnishing a student's room, [c.1840]. | C/WI/COD/123: Outline history of the College, 1846. | C/WI/COD/124: Letter from T.H. Brindley to SPG re College affairs (stray item omitted from D 1898 Barbados), 1898. | The following two items (nos. 125 & 139) relate to the Codrington Foundation School (Lodge School): C/WI/COD/125: Reports of masters: John Packer, 1830; Thomas Watts, 1838; E.H. Parry, 1844; W.T. Webb, 1855-1857; also statement re school in handwriting of Bishop Parry, 1847 (see also C/WI/COD/68 & 74-75). | C/WI/COD/139: Letter from John Cochran, bookseller, Strand, London, to SPG re books for the College, 1838. | C/WI/COD/148: Accounts, 1830-1834. | C/WI/COD/149: Day books, 1837. | C/WI/COD/150: Bursar's accounts, 1838. | C/WI/COD/151: Exhibitioners, etc., 1840.

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Accounts, 1710-1840

Contents: C/WI/COD/152: Estate accounts, 1710-1712. | C/WI/COD/153: Estate accounts, 1713. | C/WI/COD/154: Estate accounts, 1719. | C/WI/COD/155: Estate accounts, 1720. | C/WI/COD/156: Estate accounts, 1721. | C/WI/COD/157: Estate accounts, 1722. | C/WI/COD/158: Estate accounts, 1723. | C/WI/COD/159: Estate accounts, 1724. | C/WI/COD/160: Estate accounts, 1725. | C/WI/COD/161: Estate accounts, 1726. | C/WI/COD/162: Estate accounts, 1727. | C/WI/COD/163: Estate accounts, 1729. | C/WI/COD/164 & 164a: Estate accounts, 1730-1731. | C/WI/COD/165: Estate and college accounts, 1812. | C/WI/COD/166: Estate and college accounts, 1813. | C/WI/COD/167: Estate and college accounts, 1818. | C/WI/COD/168: Estate and college accounts, 1821. | C/WI/COD/169: Estate and college accounts, 1823. | C/WI/COD/170: Estate and college accounts, 1825. | C/WI/COD/171: Estate and college accounts, 1827. | C/WI/COD/172: Estate and college accounts, 1828. | C/WI/COD/173: Estate and college accounts, 1829. | C/WI/COD/174: Estate accounts, 1837. | C/WI/COD/175: Estate accounts, 1838. | C/WI/COD/176: Estate accounts, 1839. | C/WI/COD/177: Estate accounts, 1840.

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Agents' papers: Thomas Daniel & Sons, Bristol

Contents: C/WI/COD/127: Accounts of sales of sugar at Bristol, 1785-1846. | C/WI/COD/128: Correspondence of Daniel & Sons to SPG, 1801-1846. | C/WI/COD/129: Various accounts, 1794-1838. | C/WI/COD/130: Invoices of goods shipped to Barbados, 1799-1831.

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Agents' papers: Marmaduke Trattle, London

Contents: C/WI/COD/131: Accounts of sales of sugar at London, 1784-1804. | C/WI/COD/132: Accounts of sales of sugar at London, 1804-1831. | C/WI/COD/133: Various accounts, 1800-1831. | C/WI/COD/134: Invoices of goods shipped to Barbados, 1799-1831. | C/WI/COD/141: Correspondence of Trattle to SPG, 1784-1800. | C/WI/COD/142: Correspondence of Trattle to SPG, 1802-1830. | C/WI/COD/143: Correspondence of C.J. Manning, Trattle's executor, 1821-1832. | C/WI/COD/144: Correspondence re appointment of new agent, 1829-1831, including C.J. Manning and Thomas Moody (see also C/WI/COD/91). | C/WI/COD/145: Manning & Anderson, correspondence & accounts, 1838-1840.

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